Anchorage, Alaska - U.S. Attorney Karen L. Loeffler announced today that United States District Court Judge Sharon L. Gleason ordered Michael Butler, 44, along with Sun Sims, 52, Kyong Hee Kim, 57, Jae Ho Lee, 60, Jae Gak Lee, 62, and Jerry Lee, 60, to pay a total of $2,007, 250, plus interest, in restitution to the Municipality of Anchorage following their convictions on charges that they were participants in a conspiracy to defraud the Municipality of Anchorage (MOA) by evading the payment of cigarette excise tax. The conspirators were indicted on July 18, 2013, on charges including mail fraud, conspiracy to commit money laundering, and conspiracy to make false statements regarding the distribution of cigarettes. Kyong Hee Kim, Sun Sims, Kimberly Sims, Jae Ho Lee, Jae Gak Lee, and Jerry Lee previously pleaded guilty in U.S. District Court for their roles in the conspiracy and other criminal violations. Michael Butler was convicted at trial in November 2014.
According to the court documents, Michael Butler and Sun Sims operated and managed Up in Smoke, located in the MOA, and Golden Eagle Tobacco and Longmere Lake Grocery and Liquor, both located outside the MOA. Because they owned Golden Eagle Tobacco and Longmere Lake Grocery and Liquor, Butler and Sims could legitimately purchase MOA excise tax exempt cigarettes from tobacco wholesale distributors located in the MOA, but only if those cigarettes were actually transported outside of the MOA and offered for sale at those two stores. However, cigarettes that they purchased within the MOA and intended to sell at Up in Smoke or distribute to others within the MOA were not excise tax exempt.
Between 2009 and October 10, 2012, Michael Butler and Sun Sims used their Golden Eagle Tobacco and Longmere Lake Grocery and Liquor store accounts with tobacco wholesale distributors within the MOA to purchase excise tax exempt cigarettes that they intended to sell and distribute within the MOA. Thus, they avoided paying the MOA excise tax and increased their own profits.
The electronic cigarette (E-cigarette) market has grown in response to the increasing concern about the health risks of smoking6. In addition to former or current tobacco users who transition to E-cigarette, adolescent E-cigarette smokers who have never smoked have also increased in prevalence7. Approximately 7.0% of Korean adolescents have been reported to be current E-cigarette smokers8. However, to date, very little is known about the impact of E-cigarette on asthma in adolescents. E-cigarette is related to active and passive smoking; approximately 72% of E- cigarette smokers are reported to be past smokers9. In addition to practicing E-cigarette instead of tobacco, the dual use of E-cigarette and tobacco smoking is also common in Korean adolescents6. Therefore, the confounding effects of active, passive, and E-cigarette smoking should be considered when evaluating the relationship between smoking and asthma.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of active, passive, and E-cigarette smoking on asthma in Korean adolescents. This study used the doctor-diagnosed asthma to determine the prevalence of asthma. The present study extends previous studies on the associations of smoking with asthma by using a large representative adolescent population and adjusting for possible confounders including age, sex, physical activity, obesity, region of residence, economic level, parental education levels, and active, passive, and E-cigarette smoking.
In Korean adolescents, active, passive, and E-cigarette smoking in the past month were significantly more common in adolescents with asthma in the past 12 months. The associations of active and passive smoking with asthma were attenuated but still statistically significant when considering lifetime asthma.
The health effects of E-cigarette are controversial. The advantages of E-cigarette compared to tobacco smoking include a reduction in several toxins present in tobacco including volatile organic compounds (1,3-butadiene, benzene, acrylonitrile) and tobacco-specific nitrosamine, although the amount of nicotine is comparable21. Current review data have not indicated any serious adverse health risks associated with E-cigarette22. However, irritation of the mouth and/or throat and the long-term effects have not been considered22. Additionally, the presence of propylene glycol in E-cigarette and of other toxic chemicals that originate from liquid cartridges have been suggested to be detrimental to lung function and related to asthma23. Further study is warranted with E-cigarette smokers who never exposed to active or passive smoking.
Active, passive, and E-cigarette smoking were positively associated with asthma in the past 12 months in Korean adolescents. The associations of smoking with lifetime asthma were attenuated and were significant for active and passive smoking. The effects of E-cigarette should be evaluated while considering active and passive smoking status.
The song is written in the talking blues style. Its narrator expresses disdain for the inventor of the cigarette, not so much for its health concerns (as he says he is a smoker himself and it hasn't killed him yet) but because of its addictive effect on "nicotine slaves". He goes on to describe two situations, a tense poker game and a date with a beautiful woman; both are interrupted because of one of them has a nicotine craving and needs a cigarette. Williams sarcastically quips that when the smoker eventually dies from the effects of the addiction, they will tell Saint Peter that they need one more smoke before going through the golden gate.
A cover version performed by Phil Harris stayed on the charts for 4 weeks, reaching #8 on the "Best Sellers in Stores" chart. Williams made a stereophonic re-recording of the song for Capitol in 1960 on the album, Smoke! Smoke! Smoke!. It has also been covered by Johnny Bond & His Red River Valley Boys in 1947, and by Sammy Davis Jr., who hit # 89 on the Country Charts in 1982, Willie Nelson, Dennis Weaver, Michael Nesmith, Hank Thompson, Jimmy Dean, Commander Cody (Billboard #94 in 1973), Asleep at the Wheel, Doc Watson and others. Thom Bresh, the son of the song's writer Merle Travis, hit #78 on the Country Charts with the song in 1978.In France, Eddy Mitchell also recorded a French version of the song, on his album Rocking in Nashville (1974) : Fume cette cigarette.Finnish band Hullujussi covered the song in 1975, "Polta tupakkaa!"
Many people don't quit smoking because they think it's too hard, and it's true that for most people quitting isn't easy. After all, the nicotine in cigarettes is a powerfully addictive drug. But with the right approach, you can overcome the cravings.
Wash all your clothes. Get rid of the smell of cigarettes as much as you can by washing all your clothes and having your coats or sweaters dry-cleaned. If you smoked in your car, clean that out, too.
Think about your triggers. You're probably aware of the times when you tend to smoke, such as after meals, when you're at your best friend's house, while drinking coffee, or as you're driving. Any situation where it feels automatic to have a cigarette is a trigger. Once you've figured out your triggers, try these tips:
Keep yourself busy. Many people find it's best to quit on a Monday, when they have school or work to keep them busy. The more distracted you are, the less likely you'll be to crave cigarettes. Staying active is also a good distraction, plus it helps you keep your weight down and your energy up.
Quit gradually. Some people find that gradually decreasing the number of cigarettes they smoke each day is an effective way to quit. But this strategy doesn't work for everyone. You may find it's better for you to go "cold turkey" and stop smoking all at once.
Reward yourself. Quitting smoking isn't easy. Give yourself a well-deserved reward! Set aside the money you usually spend on cigarettes. When you've stayed tobacco-free for a week, 2 weeks, or a month, give yourself a treat like a gift card, movie, or some clothes. Celebrate again every smoke-free year. You earned it.
Self-expanding experiences like falling in love or engaging in novel, exciting and interesting activities activate the same brain reward mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine pathway) that reinforces drug use and abuse, including tobacco smoking. This suggests the possibility that reward from smoking is substitutable by self-expansion (through competition with the same neural system), potentially aiding cessation efforts. Using a model of self-expansion in the context of romantic love, the present fMRI experiment examined whether, among nicotine-deprived smokers, relationship self-expansion is associated with deactivation of cigarette cue-reactivity regions. Results indicated that among participants who were experiencing moderate levels of craving, cigarette cue-reactivity regions (e.g., cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex) showed significantly less activation during self-expansion conditions compared with control conditions. These results provide evidence that rewards from one domain (self-expansion) can act as a substitute for reward from another domain (nicotine) to attenuate cigarette cue reactivity.
Group analyses were preformed after converting functional images into Talairach space (re-sampled to a voxel size of 3×3×3 mm3). We compared activations across participants using AFNI program 3dANOVA3 (two-way mixed factor) with condition as the fixed factor and participants as the random factor for each group. A group statistical map was created with four contrasts: partner+cigarette vs. partner+pen (which assesses cigarette cue reactivity in the presence of self-expansion reward); acquaintance+cigarette vs. acquaintance+pen (which assesses cigarette cue reactivity in the absence of self-expansion reward); partner+cigarette vs. acquaintance+cigarette (which assesses the self-expansion effect in the presence of cigarette cues) and partner+pen vs. acquaintance+pen (which assesses the self-expansion effect in the absence of cigarette cues). To correct for multiple comparisons, statistically defined clusters of activation were identified using whole-brain Monte Carlo simulation (AFNI program Alpha Sim) to achieve a corrected cluster threshold of p 2b1af7f3a8